Rebellion in British-India
India’s independence movement was a failed effort of some people which resulted in political liberation of India from the British. This is a list of people who fought against British rule in the Indian subcontinent. Who are forever remembered and revered in India…
Surya Sen was a revolutionary and a great leader of the Indian Independence movement against British rule. He was popularly called as Master Da, as he was a school teacher from Chittagong, Undivided Bengal, British India. Born on March 22nd, 1894, at Chittagong. He is said to be one of the chief architects of Anti-British Freedom movement centered in Bengal. He learned about the Independence movement and felt attracted towards the revolutionary ideas, while he was a student. Being invited by one of his teachers, he joined the “Anushilan Shamity”, a famous revolutionary group of that time, in 1916.
After finishing his studies in 1918, he started teaching in a school at Chittagong and began to expand revolutionary activities secretly.In the beginning, Master da followed Gandhi, later he grasped that the only way to overthrow the British, was through violent revolutionary action. Master da realized the need for a coordinated revolutionary strike upon the Colonial British Government in India, and planned the Chittagong Armory raid. He prepared the team to capture the two main armoires in Chittagong and destroy the telegraph and telephone office before attaching the “European Club”.
The extended plan included Cutting-off rail and communication lines to isolate Chittagong from Calcutta & rest of India. The Raid happened on 18 April 1930, it was partially successful. The revolutionaries hoisted the Indian National Flag on the armory, but had to escape. The British police started a great manhunt, and was able to corner a number of revolutionaries in Jalalabad Hills.
After the fight with police 12 revolutionaries died and many other were arrested. Surya Sen managed to escape from there and started hiding at places. British police published a declaration on award of 10,000/- rupees for information on the hiding of Master da Surya Sen. Master da was once hiding the house of Netra Sen, who informed the British police about him. The police came and captured him of 16 February 1933.
Before Surya Sen was hanged the British police brutally tortured him. They broke all his teeth, all limbs and joints with hammer and plucked all nails. Next day, 12 January 1934, the executioners dragged his completely unconscious broken body to the rope, and hanged. Fearing a public backlash, the police put his body in a metal cage and dumped into the Bay of Bengal, without performing and funeral rituals.
The notice about Master da’s hiding
Master da will be remembered and loved as one of the bravest freedom fighters and revolutionary leader India ever had.
On the steps of the temple of liberation
How many lives were sacrificed,
It is written in tears.
Pritilata Waddedar (5 May 1911 – 24 September 1932) was an Indian nationalist revolutionary who was influential in the Indian independence movement . After completing his studies in Chittagong and Dhaka , he joined Bethune College in Calcutta . He graduated in philosophy with distance learning, and later became a school teacher. She has been hailed as “Bengali’s first woman martyr”.
Pritilata joined a revolutionary group led by Surya Sen. He is known for leading a 15-member revolutionary group in the 1932 armed attack on the European Club during which one was killed and 11 injured. The revolutionaries set fire to the club and were later caught by the colonial police. Pritilata committed suicide by consuming cyanide to avoid arrest.
Khudiram Bose (3 December 1889 – 11 August 1908) was an Indian-Bengali revolutionary who opposed British rule in India.
Along with Prafulla Chaki, Khudiram threw a bomb to assassinate the British Judge, Magistrate Kingsford thinking that he was in the car. Magistrate Kingsford was in another car, which resulted in the death of two British women, Mrs Kennedy and her daughter. Praful Chaki committed suicide before arrest and Khudiram was arrested. He was tried for the murders of two women and ultimately sentenced to death.
Khudiram was 18 years, 7 months and 11 days old at the time of his execution, making him India’s youngest Indian revolutionary. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, in his newspaper Keshari, voiced support for two young men demanding immediate Swaraj. As a result, Tilak was immediately arrested by the British colonial government for sedition.
Matangini Hazra (19 October 1870 – 29 September 1942) was a great revolutionary leader who participated in the Indian independence movement. On September 29, 1942, he was martyred by the British Indian police in front of Tamluk police station in Medinipur district.
Bhagat Singh(28 September 1907– 23 March 1931) was a leading figure in the anti-British independence movement of the Indian subcontinent and a martyr revolutionary of the Fire Age. He was one of the most influential revolutionaries in the freedom struggle of the country. He was a nationalist. Indian nationalists hold him in high esteem. Bhagat Singh was born in a Jat Sikh family. His family was involved in the anti-British revolutionary movement from earlier. As a teenager, Bhagat studied the history of European revolutionary movements and became attracted to anarchism and communism. He then became associated with several revolutionary organizations.
Joining the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), he soon became a leader in the organization with his talent, knowledge and leadership skills and transformed the organization into the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). When he and his organization were called anarchists, he refuted them with sharp arguments. He gained support by going on a 64-day hunger strike demanding equal rights for Indian and British prisoners in jail. Bhagat shot and killed a British Superintendent of Police, Mr. Sanders, in revenge for the killing of veteran freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Roy. He was hanged on trial. His example not only inspired the Indian youth in the freedom struggle, but also helped immensely in the rise of socialism in India.
6.Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – ?) is a legendary leader of India’s freedom struggle. Bose is a brilliant and great character in the history of India’s freedom struggle who devoted his entire life to this struggle. He is popularly known as Netaji. Subhas chose the path of armed struggle for independent India.
In England, he discussed India’s future with various leaders and political thinkers of the British Labor Party such as Lord Irwin, George Lansbury, Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Lasky, JBS Haldane, Ivor Jennings, Gilbert Murray, George Douglas Howard Cole, Stafford Cripps, etc. exchange During his visit to England, Subhash Chandra tried to meet several politicians, but only Labor Party and Liberal politicians agreed to meet him. Conservative Party officials either refused to meet him or refused to show him the courtesy of being a politician from the colonies. Indian National Army (Indian National Army) was originally formed by the nationalist leader Rasbihari Bose, in 1943 Rasbihari Bose handed over the responsibility of this army to Subhash Chandra Bose. It had about 85,000 (eighty-five thousand) soldiers, including a separate women’s force (Rani Laxmibai Combat).
Subhash Chandra Bose’s most famous quote is, “Give me blood, I will give you freedom.”
Rabindranath Tagore called Subhash Chandra ‘Deshanayak’ and dedicated the dance drama Taser Desh to him. In the dedication letter, he wrote: “Remembering that you have taken a vow to breathe new life into the heart of the country, I have dedicated the play ‘Taser Desh’ to your name.”
Prime Minister of Japan, Shinzo Abe visits the Subhash Chandra Bose Memorial in Kolkata. Abe told the Bose family, “The Japanese were deeply inspired by Bose’s strong will to lead the Indian independence movement under British rule. Netaji is a very revered name in Japan.”
Shivram Hari Rajguru (24 August 1908 – 23 March 1931) was an extremist revolutionary of the anti-British independence movement in the Indian subcontinent. He was martyred on the same gallows on March 23, 1931 along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev Thapar for his involvement in the murder of a British police officer with anti-British slogans.
Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1908 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter and a martyr of the anti-British movement. He is also known as a unique friend of Shaheed Bhagat Singh.
In this case Shivram Rajguru, Sukhdev and Bhagat Singh were sentenced to death. On March 23, 1931, the revolutionaries were caught in the gallows and created a new urge for freedom in the hearts of the country’s youth. Sukhdev was only 24 years old at the time of hanging.
9.Titumir (Syed Mir Nisar Ali)
Titumir, whose real name was Syed Mir Nisar Ali (born January 27, 1782, Magh 14, 1182 Bangabd, died November 19, 1831), was an anti-British figure associated with the Wahhabi movement. He is famous for his struggle against the British rule and their loyal oppressive Hindu landlords and his famous bamboo fort. He died in this bamboo fort while fighting with British troops.
Muhammad Abu Talib Ghulam Masum Khan was Titumir ‘s nephew and general. Tariqa-e-Muhammadiya movement hero Titumi was martyred in his fancy fort Bansherkella. Commander Ghulam Masum was captured by the British forces. And he was hanged. It would not be an exaggeration to call Ghulam Masum the first martyr of the freedom movement against the British.
11.Lala Lajpat Roy
Lala Lajpat Rai (English: Lala Lajpat Rai; Punjabi: Lajpat Rai) was an Indian freedom fighter. He is also known as Punjab Keshari. Lala founded Punjab National Bank and Laxmi Bima Company. He is one of the leaders of the extreme wing of the Indian National Congress. In 1928 he participated in the exhibition held against the Simon Commission. There he was seriously injured by police baton charge. He died on 17 November 1928.
12.Chandra Shekhar Azad
Chandrasekhar Azad (23 July 1906 – 27 February 1931; known as Azad) was a revolutionary in the Indian independence movement.
Chandrasekhar Azad died on 27 February 1931 at Alfred Park in Allahabad. An unidentified visitor told him the police surrounded him in the park. He was injured and killed three policemen to protect himself and Sukhdev Raj. His actions could make Sukhdev Raja flee. He shot himself dead with his last bullet. Chandra Shekhar Azad’s Cort Pistol is on display at the Allahabad Museum.
13.Ram Prasad Bismil
Ramprasad Bismil (11 June 1897 – 19 December 1927) was an Indian freedom fighter. Ramprasad Bismil was a founding member of the revolutionary organization Hindustan Republican Association. Shahid Bhagat Singh praised him by saying that he was a great poet and writer in Urdu and Hindi, who translated Catherine from English and Bolshevik Key Kartut from Bengali.
Ramprasad Bismil died on the gallows at the age of 30 for India’s freedom. It is not known how many revolutionaries were martyred on the gallows singing his famous Ranhunkar (“Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai dekh na hai zor kitna bajo hai katil mein hai”). Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna ghazal by Bismil Azimabadi gained popularity through Ramprasad Bismil as a pioneer in the Indian freedom movement.
14.Genda Lal Dixit
Genda Lal Dixit (30 November 1888 – 21 December 1920) was an Indian revolutionary who worked as a school teacher in Auraiya, Etawah District, United Provinces, British India. He led a group of Indian freedom fighters (revolutionaries) known as the Shivaji Samiti, who were involved in subversive activities against the British Raj.
As a result of their involvement in the Mainpuri Conspiracy of 1918, Dixit was arrested and imprisoned first in Agra Fort and later in Mainpuri. He managed to escape from prison and died on 21 December 1920 in a government hospital in Delhi.
Pandit Bhavanicharan Pathak is the protagonist of the ‘Sanyasi Revolt’, a long-running religious war against British rule and oppression in Bengal in the 18th century. The Sannyasi Rebellion was India’s first anti-British independence struggle. There is no information available about Bhavanicharan Pathak’s birth year, but approximately 1725-1730 years of Bengal 1131-1136, he has his colorful presence in history.He belonged to Shrotriya Barendra Brahmin community. Bhavani Pathak’s ancestors were natives of Mahasthangarh region of Pundravardhan. Later his ancestors started living in Phulbabur Chakhla of Panga Pargana of Cooch Behar State (presently Pathak Chakirpashar Mauza of Rajarhat Upazila, Kurigram District.
Bhavani Pathak’s father’s name is Siddhinath Pathak. In addition to Hindu monks and warriors belonging to the Giri community, his group included Peasant-Prayer Army The main field of operations against the British was the vast areas of Rangpur, Bogra, Dinajpur, Maldah, Cooch Behar and Mymensingh.
He freed the entire North Bengal from the Mughal Nawabs and the British. He got the active help and support of Devi Chaudhurani, one of the heroines of this revolt, in his activities. Bhavanicharan Pathak and Devi Chaudhurani are mentioned side by side from the middle of 1787. Their joint attack brought governance to a virtual standstill in a large area of Mymensingh and Bogra districts. As a result, two of them were arrested by the British rulers. In June 1787, he again engaged in a water battle with the British near Gobindganj in Rangpur district, and was defeated and killed.
Majnu Shah or Fakir Majnu Shah Borhan (died 1787) was a Fakir or Sufi saint from Uttar Pradesh in present-day India. He actively participated in the fakir-monk rebellion. According to some scholars, this revolt was one of the first battles of the Indian independence movement. He participated in many battles against his team, the British East India Company.
At the Battle of Udhuanala (1761) and the Battle of Buxar (1764), Majnu Shah mobilized a large number of Muslim fakirs and Hindu monks against the British East India Company. Previously, in 1757, the East India Company had seized power from the Nawab of Bengal.
Dinajpur and Bogra districts were the center of his activities. He encouraged the people in freedom, religion and unity.
According to another source, the 6th male subordinate of Majnu Shah, Hyder Ali Chowdhury, according to him, Majnu Shah’s real name is Noor Uddin Md. Baker Jung. He is a Mughal prince. His daughter Lalbibi was the mother of the Mughal emperor Shah Bahadur Shah II. Another party claims that on December 29, 1786, he was marching eastward from Bogra district with five hundred soldiers and encountered the English forces at a place called Kaleswar. When he was mortally wounded in this battle, his followers crossed the Rajshahi and Maldah districts to the Bihar border. In a village called Makhanpur, this hero of the fakir-monk revolt ended his active life.
After his death, his nephew Musha Shah led the fakirs and led the attack with muskets and rockets. He died during a battle in 1792.
Born : 21 March 1738
Ghutiadi, Saraikela Kharsanwa, British India
Died : 5 April 1778 (age 40)
Dalma, British India
Occupation : Postman, Farmer, Musician, Karam, Natua Dancer, Harbansi, Philosopher, Freedom Fighter
Raghunath Mahato was a revolutionary martyr of the anti-British Chuar Rebellion.
Shaheed Raghunath Singh (Bhumij) was a freedom fighter and great leader of the Chua Rebellion. He led the Chua rebellion against British rule and was martyred by hanging on 23 September 1834. Raghunath Singh was originally a resident of Dampara in Ghatshila area and was a zamindar of 60 mauzas. His grandfather Jagannath Singh and father Baidyanath Singh also died fighting against the British.
Shahid Durjan Singh was a revolutionary and a great leader of the Chua Rebellion. He led the Chua Rebellion in Medinipur District in 1798-99 against British rule and died fighting against the British.
He rebelled against the heavy taxation, oppressive demands of the British Empire.
Ganganarayan was a leader of the 18th century anti-British land revolt. His revolt was called ‘Ganganarayani Hungama’ by the British.
In late 1832, when the rebellion was suppressed by the efforts of the British government, Ganganarayan fled to Singhbhum. There he died in a battle with the Khorswan kings.
21.Rani of Jhansi (Lakshmibai)
Lakshmi Bai (born: November 19, 1828 – died: June 17, 1858) is a memorable figure in the history of India as a revolutionary leader.
10 May 1857 Indian rebellion started in Meerut on that day. Rumors circulated that pork and beef fat were used to coat the Lee Enfield rifle. However, the British regime continued to use pork and beef fat in rifles. They stated that strict action will be taken against those who refuse to use the said rifle. And the British authorities also started taking action against those who disobeyed the order. In this mutiny, sepoys killed many British soldiers and officers of the East India Company.
At that time Lakshmi Bai managed to get her army out of Jhansi safely and unharmed. Vigorous mass movements spread all over India. At this extreme moment the British authorities tried to divert their attention. Lakshmi Bai left Jhansi alone. Under his leadership, Jhansi remained calm and peaceful. During the Haldi-Kumkum ceremony, the women of Jhansi took an oath that they would face any attack and were not afraid of the enemy’s attack.
On June 17, 1858, Rani was martyred in a pitched battle with the royal forces at Kotah-ki Serai near Phul Bagh area. After three more days, the British army recaptured Gwalior. General Hughes Rose, in his report on behalf of the British authorities at the end of the war, noted that,
“The Queen is remembered for her natural beauty, wit and remarkable perseverance. Also, he was the most dangerous of all the rebel leaders.”
22.Bahadur Shah Zafar
Bahadur Shah Jafar (born as Mirza Abu Jafar Siraj-ud-Din Muhammad) (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the 19th and last emperor of the Mughal Empire. He is the predecessor and 2nd child of his father Mughal Emperor Akbar II. At the end of the Sepoy Revolution in 1858, he was deposed by the British rulers and exiled to Rangoon, where he died.
Sepoy Mangal Pandey (19 July 1827 – 8 April 1857) was an Indian soldier who played a key role in starting the Indian Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. He was a sepoy of the British East India Company’s 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) troop (regiment). Although contemporary British opinion condemned him as a traitor and rebel, Mangal Pandey is a hero of modern India. In 1984, the Government of India issued a postage stamp in his memory. Several films have depicted his life and activities.
Pandey recovered and was brought to trial in less than a week. When asked if he was under the influence of any narcotic during the revolt, Pandey said that he himself had revolted and no other person had played any role in encouraging him. Pandey was sentenced to death by hanging along with Ishwari Prasad of Jimada.
Ten days before the scheduled date, on 8 April 1857, Mangal Pandey was publicly executed.
Rasimani Hajong or Rashimani Hajong (1901 – January 31, 1946) was one of the revolutionary leaders of the Tonk movement in Mymensingh in 1946. Was born in 1901 in Baheratli village of Kullagara union under Durgapur upazila of Netrakona district.
Rasimani directly participated in the Hajong Tonk tradition and the anti-British imperialism movement. He was a revolutionary member of the Farmers’ Association. In 1946, a student was killed in firing on a procession in the city of Mymensingh on the occasion of Vietnam Day. That’s why intense protests were created in the entire Mymensingh district. As a result, police raids in Baheratali village created panic. The police were forcibly taking away a young woman named Kumudini alias Saraswati from that village. The village farmers’ association workers were returning from a public meeting in Durgapur. Among them was female activist Rasimoni.
He is furious with the police with a handgun in his determination to rescue the helpless Kumudini. Then the police opened fire. Rasimani and another worker named Surendranath died in the firing. On hearing this news, the farmers in the area started attacking the police forces. Two policemen were killed in the encounter and others escaped.While saving Saraswati, a farmer’s wife, from the hands of the military who suppressed the farmers’ revolt in Hajong area, he severed the body of a soldier from the head. Later she was martyred by another soldier. Shankhamani, Revati, Neelmani, Padmamani and many others were martyred in this Hajong rebellion along the river Someswari. Jyoti Bose, barrister Snehanshukanth Acharya came to the Hajang-dominated villages of the Garo hills to investigate the incident on the ground in Baheratali village. But Mymensingh District Magistrate Bastin did not allow them to enter Baheratali village.
Ardhendu Dastidar (1911 – April 22, 1930) was one of the leading figures in the anti-British independence movement in the Indian subcontinent. As a member of the revolutionary party, he participated in the looting of the Chittagong Armory on April 18, 1930. He was one of the victorious forces in the Battle of Jalalabad Hills organized 4 days later. He was wounded in a battle with British troops at Jalalabad Hills. Ardhendu died at Sadar Hospital.
Rajendra Lahiri (23 June 1901 – 17 December 1927), also known as Rajendra Nath Lahiri, was a Bengali Hindu Brahmin revolutionary who participated in various revolutionary activities of the Hindustan Republican Association to oust the British from India. On August 9, 1925, between Kakori and Alamnagar stations, 14 miles from Lucknow, a passenger train was stopped by a chain and the money chest was removed. He is one of the 16 people who participated in this matter. This heroic act of theirs is known as the Kakori Revolution.
Before the hanging, Rajendra Lahiri wrote in a letter from Gonda Jail, ‘Death is as inevitable as the morning light. But why should man fear death, or mourn for it?’
Asfaqullah Khan (22 October 1900 – 19 December 1927) was a brave Indian freedom fighter who was martyred along with Ramprasad Bismil. Both of them were hanged in separate jails on the same day.
Asfaqullah Khan was the first Indian Muslim of the 20th century to be hanged for conspiracy against the British Raj.
Rajab Ali Khan was a soldier of the East Bengal Regiment of British India known as Habildar Rajab Ali. In 1857, he led the Chittagong Rebellion during the Sepoy Revolution. They attacked the British prison and freed all the prisoners. Sepoy Jamal Khan led the mutiny of No. 2, 3 and 4 companies and attacked the barracks and left Chittagong with elephants, ammunition and other essentials, but fighting at various places left the rebels powerless at one point. At the end of the supply, on January 9, 1858, he was defeated in the battle with the British forces in Manipur, Sylhet and hid in the forest of the hills. He was never found.
Devi Choudhurani is one of the few women in the history of British India who was associated with the anti-British movement. His father’s name was Braj Kishore Chowdhury and his mother’s name was Kasishwari Devi. She was married to Narayan Chandra Chowdhury, the zamindar of Manthana. After the death of her husband, the responsibility of zamindari falls on her. He loved the people very much.
At that time, Jonathan Goodlad became the collector of Rangpur region and Devisingh was appointed as his Dewan. Dewan Devisingh and his staff gave the responsibility of revenue collection to Hare Ram. During revenue collection, the peasants and even the zamindars became fed up with their oppression. Moreover, the oppression of the English indigo growers increased at that time. , they started forcing the farmers to cultivate indigo on the fertile land. In view of this, Devi Choudhurani declared rebellion against the British. And because of that, he fell under the wrath of the British. To suppress him, a group of English troops were sent under the leadership of Mir Kashim.
In this battle, Muhammad Jang of Noor Uddin Bakr of Rangpur, Bhabani Pathak and hundreds of farmers of Dinajpur, Rangpur and Bogra Anch participated with Devi Chaudhurani. In February 1760 The battle begins. Devi Chaudhurani won the battle. Many people including the English captain were killed in the battle and Mir Kashim was forced to retreat. The place where Devi Chaudhurani won the battle is still popularly known as “Jaipur”.
In April 1783, on the first Thursday (Chandipur village of Pirgacha upazila), a group of English forces under the leadership of Lord Warren Hastings was defeated and killed in a battle with modern weapons. In this battle, the zamindar of Annadanagar along with Devi Chaudhurani was also killed. Every Thursday of Bengali Baisakh month at the place where Devi Chaudhurani was defeated. The fair is held. Which is known as “Napaichandi” fair.
Maina Kumari (Born:- ? – Died:- 3 September 1857) was an anti-British freedom fighter.
He was threatened with burning alive; But Maina was not upset by that. Finally Outram ordered him to be tied to a tree and burned. So did the merciless soldiers. Tied to a tree, set on fire. The day was the night of September 3, 1857. Only 13-year-old Maina was quietly burnt to ashes. Thus, he writes his name in the list of children who sacrificed their lives for the country.
31.Jatindra Nath Das
Jatindra Nath Das (27 October 1904 – 13 September 1929),
was an Indian freedom fighter and colleague of revolutionary Bhagat Singh. The self-sacrificing, courageous man was arrested on June 14, 1929, accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case. He started a hunger strike on 13th July that year to demand the rights of the prisoners. After 63 days of hunger strike, he died in jail on September 13 at the age of 24.
By dying in this way, the torture of the royal prisoners was alleviated. When the body of this brave martyr was brought to Calcutta, a huge procession of two lakh people led by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose followed the funeral procession to the Keoratala Crematorium.
The play Tapati was being rehearsed at Santiniketan during the hunger strike, a distraught Rabindranath Tagore stopped the rehearsals of the play and that night composed the song ‘Sarb Kharb Tare Dahe Taba Krodh Dah’, which was later included in the play ‘Tapati’.
Jatindranath Das, Mahavir Singh, Mohitmohan Maitra, Mohankishore Namodas, Mahendralal Biswas, Harendra Munshi, Anilkumar Das, Manindranath Bandyopadhyay, Panditram Raksha and many others who died on hunger strike in the anti-British freedom movement are some of them.
Mahavir Singh (16 September 1904 – 17 May 1933) was one of the leading figures of the anti-British independence movement in the Indian subcontinent and a revolutionary of the Agni era. A statue of him has been erected in front of the cellular jail in his honour.
Mahavir Singh Navjoan was a member of the Bharat Sabha. Mahavir helped Bhagat Singh, Batukeshwar Dutt and Durgavati Devi escape from Maujang House in Lahore.
He was convicted in the Second Lahore Conspiracy Case. He was convicted and sent to Andaman Cellular Jail. When the hunger strike started there in 1933, he participated in it. He died due to the torture inflicted on him while on hunger strike. Mohitmohan Maitra and Mohankishore Namodas were also martyred in this movement.
Mahavir Singh died on 17 May 1933 due to torture and starvation. Mohit Maitra and Mohan Kishore Namodas also died during the fast.
On May 17, 1933, he was brutally murdered in the name of force-feeding during his hunger strike. Milk was forced into her lungs and developed fever and later pneumonia. Mohit died after a ten-day battle with pneumonia.
Mohankishore Namodas (? – May 26, 1933) was one of the leading figures of the Indian subcontinent’s anti-British independence movement and a firebrand revolutionary.Mohan Kishore Namodas was born in Sararchar of Bajitpur Upazila of Kishoreganj District. He was the son of a poor farmer family belonging to the Dalit community of Bengal.
In 1932, he was arrested along with others on charges of political robbery in the village of Netrakona Swarikanda as a worker of Prakhya Revolutionary Party and sentenced to 7 years rigorous imprisonment and sent to Andaman Cellular Jail. In 1933, when the group hunger strike started there, he participated in it. He died due to the torture inflicted on him while on hunger strike.
After the youth rebellion in Chittagong district, his house became a refuge for revolutionaries. His two sons Suresh and Bimal joined the revolutionary party. He kept watch day and night to save the revolutionaries from the British forces. Despite searching the house several times, the police could not catch anyone. He was finally arrested in 1936. He sacrificed his life by going on hunger strike in jail.
Hemu Kalani (23 March 1923 – 21 January 1943) was an anti-British freedom fighter and martyr.
If Hemu’s death was ordered in the trial, then the Viceroy was appealed to for its reprieve. Thousands of people in Sindh signed a mercy petition for him. But after hearing that Hemu would announce the names of his fellow revolutionaries, he rejected the proposal in disgust. He was hanged at Sukkur Central Jail on 21 January 1943 at the age of 19.
Jhalkari Bai (Born:- 22 November 1830 ― Died:- 4 April 1857) was the commander of the Durga Dal of the women’s wing among the soldiers of Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi. Lakshmi Bai and Jhalkari both look the same. Even the British never realized that she was not Lakshmi Bai after seeing Jhalkari. Because of this, she used to disguise himself as Rani Lakshmi Bai and fight. In this way she repeatedly deceived the enemy. Even at the end of her life she fought under the guise of Rani Lakshmi Bai and was captured by the British. And on the other hand Rani Lakshmi Bai has managed to leave her palace. She fought with Rani of Jhansi against the British forces in the first freedom struggle with unparalleled valour.
The day was April 4, 1857, during the battle, Shining fell on the battlefield after being hit by a bullet, from which he never got up. Jhalkari Bai was such a hero.
38.Sidhu and Kanu
The Sidhu and Kanu brothers (Sidhu Murmu and Kanu Murmu respectively), also spelled Sidho Murmu (1815 – 24 February 1856) and Kanhu Murmu (1820 – 23 February 1856) were two of the greatest leaders of the Santal rebellion early in the Indian independence movement.
On February 23, 1856, he was hanged on the Panchkathia banyan tree near Bhagnadihi at 2:30 a.m. From the gallows, he announced – “I will come again, and again I will set the fire of rebellion all over the country.” After 45 minutes, his body was hanged on the gallows. The barbaric British government did not even have the courtesy to hand over Kanu’s body to his relatives.
Birsa Munda (15 November 1875 – 9 June 1900) was a Munda tribal and social reformer from the Ranchi region of India. Enraged by the tyranny and injustice of the then British rulers, he organized the tribal Mundas and started the Munda Rebellion. He was known as Birsa Bhagavan to the rebels. Birsa and more than a hundred of his companions were arrested after the revolt. In the trial, he was sentenced to death. A Ranchi jailer died of cholera before his execution. Two others caught were hanged, 12 exiled and 73 sentenced to long imprisonment.
Mahasweta Devi’s popular novel ‘Aranya Adhikar’ is based on the life of Shaheed Birsa Munda.
Tilka Majhi or Tilka Murmu (February 11, 1750 ― January 13, 1785) was an early leader of the tribal rebellion and a martyr of India’s freedom struggle. His father Chunu Murmu was the village chief.
The leader of the ‘Kherwad Rebellion’ against the East India Company in Bhagalpur and a martyr of India’s first Santal Rebellion. In 1781-84, Tilka shaped the mass revolt that erupted among the poor Santals against the East India Company’s brutal methods of land grabbing and forced tax collection. He was called Baba Tilka Majhi. Many Santals were martyred in this long movement. In 1778 he captured the East India Company’s Ramgarh battalion with 1300 Southal rebels and looted the company’s treasury and distributed it among the people. In the month of January 1784, when the English Collector of Bhagalpur, August Cleveland Tilka Murmu (Maji) died, the English army surrounded Tilka and his companions in the forest of Tilakpur. Tilka Majhi was caught injured in this struggle.
As punishment for rebellion, he was tied to the back of a galloping horse. If he did not die in this brutal manner, he was publicly hanged in Bhagalpur city. Tilka Majhi is regarded as one of the martyrs of India’s anti-British imperialist movement.
41.Dinesh Chandra Majumdar
Dinesh Chandra Majumdar (19 May 1907 – 9 June 1934) was one of the leading figures of the anti-British independence movement in the Indian subcontinent and a martyred revolutionary of the Agni era.
He was one of three men who attacked Charles Taggart on August 25, 1930, at the behest of the party. He was arrested during the attack. The trial resulted in a life sentence. In 1932, he escaped from Medinipur Jail along with two other revolutionaries and managed to hide despite breaking his leg. He also worked as a porter while in hiding. Finally revolutionary Srishchandra Ghosh sheltered him in Chandannagar.
In 1932, there were two assassination attempts on Watson under his leadership. When a group of policemen led by Police Commissioner Quinn of Chandannagar chased the revolutionaries, Quinn was shot dead by Dinesh and he went into hiding with the revolutionaries.
By 1932, police brutality and mass arrests had weakened the party’s position. He then tried to revive the party. With the help of an employee of Grindley Bank, money was withdrawn and an attempt was made to buy weapons with the money. At that time he was staying at Narayan Banerjee’s house in Cornwallis Street. On May 25, 1933, when the police discovered and attacked the house, both sides exchanged fire. Dinesh, Jagdananda and Nalini Das fought to the last bullet and were captured wounded. The trial resulted in his death sentence and two others life imprisonment.
Finally, on May 22, 1933, after a bloody encounter, the police were able to arrest him. The trial began. One by one many charges were brought against him. Jailbreak Conspiracy, Kuni Murder Case, Grindledge Bank Fraud etc. Finally the judges gave the death sentence.
Dinesh Majumder died on the gallows on July 9, 1934.